§110.31. English Language Arts and Reading, English I (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English I, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English I as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C)  produce analogies that describe a function of an object or its description;

(D)  describe the origins and meanings of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English (e.g., caveat emptor, carte blanche, tete a tete, pas de deux, bon appetit, quid pro quo); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze how the genre of texts with similar themes shapes meaning;

(B)  analyze the influence of mythic, classical and traditional literature on 20th and 21st century literature; and

(C)  relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of diction and imagery (e.g., controlling images, figurative language, understatement, overstatement, irony, paradox) in poetry.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologues, soliloquies, dramatic irony) enhance dramatic text.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze non-linear plot development (e.g., flashbacks, foreshadowing, sub-plots, parallel plot structures) and compare it to linear plot development;

(B)  analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C)  analyze the way in which a work of fiction is shaped by the narrator's point of view; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on classical literature.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the role of irony, sarcasm, and paradox in literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the controlling idea and specific purpose of an expository text and distinguish the most important from the less important details that support the author's purpose.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize text and distinguish between a summary that captures the main ideas and elements of a text and a critique that takes a position and expresses an opinion;

(B)  differentiate between opinions that are substantiated and unsubstantiated in the text;

(C)  make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the relevance, quality, and credibility of evidence given to support or oppose an argument for a specific audience; and

(B)  analyze famous speeches for the rhetorical structures and devices used to convince the reader of the authors' propositions.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the clarity of the objective(s) of procedural text (e.g., consider reading instructions for software, warranties, consumer publications); and

(B)  analyze factual, quantitative, or technical data presented in multiple graphical sources.

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images (e.g., graphic art, illustrations, news photographs) versus non-visual texts;

(B)  analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C)  compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media (e.g., newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, Internet); and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, and a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot;

(B)  write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a controlling idea or thesis;

(iv)  an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context; and

(v)  relevant information and valid inferences;

(B)  write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i)  organized and accurately conveyed information; and

(ii)  reader-friendly formatting techniques;

(C)  write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i)  extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views;

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; and

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas.

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii)  restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii)  reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B)  identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  use correct punctuation marks including:

(i)  quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony;

(ii)  comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions; and

(iii)  dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B)  organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B)  provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C)  uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D)  uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language AssociationChicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C)  evaluate the effectiveness of a speaker's main and supporting ideas.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

Source: The provisions of this §110.31 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.



§110.62. Journalism (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in Journalism write in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students enrolled in this course are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis, carefully examining their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. In Journalism, students are expected to write in a variety of forms and for a variety of audiences and purposes. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. Published work of professional journalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Journalism will learn journalistic traditions, research self-selected topics, write journalistic texts, and learn the principles of publishing.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Journalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates an understanding of media development, press law, and responsibility. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the history and development of American journalism through people and events;

(B)  identify the foundations of press law, including copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property;

(C)  identify the foundations of journalistic ethics;

(D)  distinguish between responsible and irresponsible media action; and

(E)  understand the consequences of plagiarism.

(2)  The student demonstrates an understanding of the different forms of media and the different types of journalistic writing. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish the similarities and differences of print, broadcast, and online media; and

(B)  distinguish the similarities and differences of news, feature, and opinion writing.

(3)  The student reports and writes for a variety of audiences and purposes and researches self-selected topics to write journalistic texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate an understanding of the elements of news;

(B)  select the most appropriate journalistic format to present content;

(C)  locate information sources such as persons, databases, reports, and past interviews; gather background information; and research to prepare for an interview or investigate a topic;

(D)  plan and write relevant questions for an interview or in-depth research;

(E)  gather information through interviews (in person or telephone);

(F)  evaluate and confirm the validity of background information from a variety of sources such as other qualified persons, books, and reports;

(G)  write copy synthesizing direct and indirect quotes and other research;

(H)  use journalistic style to write copy;

(I)  revise and edit copy using appropriate copy editing symbols;

(J)  rewrite copy;

(K)  create different forms of journalistic writing such as reviews, ad copy, columns, news, features, and editorials to inform, entertain, and/or persuade;

(L)  write captions; and

(M)  demonstrate an understanding of the function of headlines through the writing of headlines.

(4)  The student demonstrates understanding of the principles of publishing through design using available technologies. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the appropriate form of journalistic publication to present content such as newspapers, newsmagazines, online media, broadcasts, and newsletters;

(B)  design elements into an acceptable presentation;

(C)  use illustrations or photographs that have been cropped to communicate and emphasize a topic;

(D)  use graphic devices such as lines, screens, and art to communicate and emphasize a topic; and

(E)  prepare a layout for publication.

(5)  The student demonstrates an understanding of the economics of publishing. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand general salesmanship in selling professional or student-produced publications;

(B)  differentiate between advertising appeals and propaganda;

(C)  differentiate between the various types of advertising such as classified, display, public service, and online advertising; and

(D)  design an advertisement for a particular audience.

Source: The provisions of this §110.62 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.